Longer time of implantation using the buried pin technique for intramedullary nailing would decrease refracture in the diaphyseal forearm fracture in children-retrospective multicenter (TRON) study

Published:January 09, 2023DOI:


      • Longer time of implantation using the buried pin technique for intramedullary nailing reduces refracture of pediatric diaphyseal forearm fractures.
      • The duration before implant removal in the buried pin group was more than 4 times longer than that in the exposed pin group.
      • Implantation of intramedullary nailing for 6–9 months may decrease refractures.



      Intramedullary nailing using Kirschner wires in pediatric diaphyseal forearm fractures is often performed as a less invasive treatment than plate fixation, but it remains controversial whether the tips of Kirschner wires are buried or exposed. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between whether the tips are buried or exposed and complications, especially of refracture.


      Data of 405 patients under 16 years who underwent surgical treatment for diaphyseal forearm fractures in our 11 hospitals between 2010 and 2020 were collected. Finally, 143 patients who underwent intramedullary nailing with at least 6-month follow-up were analyzed. We investigated difference in complication rates depending on whether the Kirschner wire tips were buried (Group B: n = 79) or exposed (Group E: n = 64). Regarding refractures, we also examined time of onset and status of bone union before the refracture occurred.


      The duration before implant removal in Group B was more than 4 times longer than that in Group E (mean 187.9 vs. 41.4 days, p<0.001), although there was no significant difference in the progression of bone union between the two groups. Regarding postoperative complications, Group B had a significantly lower rate of refractures than Group E (7.9% vs. 32.8%, p<0.001), although the rate of irritation pain was significantly higher (15.2% vs. 1.6%, p = 0.006). The infection rate was also lower in Group B than Group E, but not significantly so (3.8% vs. 10.9%, p = 0.112). Refractures between 3 and 9 months after surgery accounted for 66.7% of all refractures, and those within 3 months accounted for 14.5% of all fractures. There was no significant difference in the status of bone union before the refracture occurred between patients with and without refracture.


      The present study showed that longer time of implantation using the buried pin technique for intramedullary nailing reduces refracture of pediatric diaphyseal forearm fractures. Because of the risk of refracture during remodeling, we recommend the implantation of intramedullary nailing for 6–9 months and the instruction for the patients and the parents to pay more attention to refracture at least within 9 months postoperatively.
      Level of Evidence: Level Ⅲ, Multicenter retrospective study.


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