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Hand wounds: An analysis of topography and related damage to underlying structures

  • Author Footnotes
    # Twitter handles: @lc_castel
    Louis-Charles Castel
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author.
    Footnotes
    # Twitter handles: @lc_castel
    Affiliations
    Service de chirurgie orthopédique et traumatologique, Hôpital Avicenne, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Université Sorbonne-Paris-Nord, 125 Rue de Stalingrad, 93000, Bobigny, France

    Fédération Universitaire de chirurgie de la main, du membre supérieur et de traumatologie sportive d'Ile-de-France, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris
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  • Simon A. Hurst
    Affiliations
    Service de chirurgie orthopédique et traumatologique, Hôpital Avicenne, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Université Sorbonne-Paris-Nord, 125 Rue de Stalingrad, 93000, Bobigny, France

    Fédération Universitaire de chirurgie de la main, du membre supérieur et de traumatologie sportive d'Ile-de-France, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris
    Search for articles by this author
  • Emmanuel Masmejean
    Affiliations
    Fédération Universitaire de chirurgie de la main, du membre supérieur et de traumatologie sportive d'Ile-de-France, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris
    Search for articles by this author
  • Thomas M. Gregory
    Affiliations
    Service de chirurgie orthopédique et traumatologique, Hôpital Avicenne, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Université Sorbonne-Paris-Nord, 125 Rue de Stalingrad, 93000, Bobigny, France

    Fédération Universitaire de chirurgie de la main, du membre supérieur et de traumatologie sportive d'Ile-de-France, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris
    Search for articles by this author
  • Author Footnotes
    # Twitter handles: @lc_castel
Published:October 20, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.injury.2022.10.022

      Highlights

      • Hand wounds are very common and represent a major public health issue
      • The digits represent 71% of wounds with the Index finger accounting for 1/5th of all injuries
      • Palmar zones are the most affected but dorsal wounds have a higher association with injury to underlying structures
      • Areas with more than 50% of lesions are palmar zone 5 and dorsal zones 1, 3, 5, 6, and 7.
      • Dorsal wounds overlying joints had more lesions with zone 3 presenting a rate of 68%

      Abstract

      Introduction

      Hand wounds account for 35 to 51% of hand traumas. Damage to underlying anatomical structures depends on the location of the wound. The objective of this study is to describe the topographic distribution of hand wounds allowing for subsequent evaluation of the link between affected surface area and underlying lesion.

      Methods

      We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 1058 patients with a total of 1319 wounds over a period of 2 years. Wound location was described according to the cutaneous projection of IFSSH zones for flexors and extensors. Any associated deep lesions were evaluated. Topographical distribution was modeled graphically using a heat-map. We compared the proportion of underlying lesions between each cutaneous zone. Sub-group analysis for lesions’ rate regarding zone groups were performed.

      Results

      58.9% of wounds were located on the palmar surface and 41.1% on the dorsal surface. 71% of wounds affected only the digits. The index finger was the most affected. The most damaged region was zone 2 for palmar wounds and zone 3 for dorsal wounds. 45.5% of wounds resulted in injury to a significant underlying anatomical structure. This frequency was 36.4% and 58.5% for palmar and dorsal wounds respectively. More than 50% of wounds in palmar zone 5 and dorsal zones 1, 3, 5, 6 and 7 presented at least one lesion.
      A lesion of major structure was more frequently found in palmar zone 5 (p <0.001). Dorsally, no zone predominated. Subgroup analysis for dorsal wounds revealed that wounds overlying joints had more major lesions including more tendons injuries and more articular violations with zone 3 presenting a rate of 68%.

      Conclusion

      We provided the first graphical representation for the topographical distribution of hand wounds. Dorsal wounds have a higher association with injury to underlying structures. These results generally support surgical exploration of all hand wounds regardless of their location.
      Level of evidence: IV Study type: Epidemiological study.

      Keywords

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