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Characteristics of pediatric traumatic cataract and factors affecting visual outcomes

Published:September 20, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.injury.2022.09.034

      Highlights

      • Traumatic cataract secondary to ocular trauma is one of the main causes of visal loss in pediatric age group.
      • Children are prone to such injuries due to low attention, limited motor skills and inadequate risk assesment.
      • Visual prognosis after traumatic cataract depends on the associated ocular tissue damage.
      • Surgical approach and optimal timing are very important and challenging in pediatric patients due to the visual rehabilitation process.

      Abstract

      Purpose

      To evaluate the clinical characteristics, surgical approach and visual results in pediatric traumatic cataract.

      Material and methods

      Data of pediatric and adult traumatic cataract patients were retrospectively analyzed. Age, gender, cause and zone of trauma, additional clinical findings, initial and final visual acuity (VA) were analyzed and compared between groups.

      Results

      The mean age of 18 patients in the pediatric group was 9.4(SD 5.7); 18 patients in the adult group was 47.8(16.2) years. There was a male predominance in both groups (12/16 male, respectively). The most common cause of trauma was sharp metal objects (50%) in the pediatric group and wooden and traffic accidents (33%) in the adult group. The initial mean VA of the patients were 0.03(0.09), 0.09(0.1) in the pediatric and adult groups, respectively, (p: 0.34). The mean ocular trauma score (OTS) was 51.4(16.4) and 59.6(10.5) in the pediatric and adult groups, respectively (p: 0.09). Simultaneous surgery was performed in 5 (28%) eyes in both groups. Subsequent lens extraction and IOL implantation were performed in 10 of pediatric and 13 of adult patients. The final VA was 0.3(0.7), 0.3(0.4) in the pediatric and adult group, respectively (p: 0.94). Final VA was correlated with OTS in both of the groups and the presence of additional surgery in the pediatric group.

      Conclusion

      Traumatic cataract is a major cause of visual loss in children. Lower OTS and presence of additional surgery were the prognostic factors for poor final VA in the pediatric cases. Optimal timing and accurate management of traumatic cataract are important in the pediatric population.

      Keywords

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