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Safety and efficacy of perioperative tranexamic acid infusion in acetabular fracture fixation: A randomized placebo-controlled double-blind prospective study

      Abstract

      Introduction

      Open reduction and internal fixation of acetabular fracture is associated with significant blood loss. Although Tranexamic acid (TXA) infusion effectively reduces perioperative blood loss and transfusion requirements in elective orthopedic surgery, its efficacy in major orthopedic trauma surgery is controversial.

      Material and methods

      Sixty-three patients undergoing open reduction and internal fixation of acetabular fracture were randomized into either TXA (n = 36) or placebo (n = 27) group. TXA group received a bolus dose of TXA (10 mg/kg) 15 min prior to incision, followed by another similar dose after 3 h of surgery. The placebo group received the same volume of normal saline similarly. All patients were operated on by a single pelviacetabular surgeon with a uniform perioperative protocol. The intraoperative blood loss, drain output, the number of blood transfusions, postoperative hemoglobin (Hb) drop, and hematocrit (Hct) drop were calculated.

      Results

      Both groups were similar in relation to age, sex, BMI, preoperative Hb, the timing of surgery, fracture pattern, operative time, and surgical approaches. The mean postoperative Hb was 10.35 ± 1.36 gm% in TXA group and 9.74 ± 1.98 gm% in placebo group (p-value 0.158). There were no differences in intraoperative blood loss (438.11 ml vs. 442.81, p=.947), drain output (131.94 ml vs. 129.63, p=.870), and blood transfusion (8 patients vs. five patients, p=.719) between the groups. The drop in Hb and Hct in the postoperative period was also statistically not significant between the groups.

      Conclusion

      There is no significant reduction in blood loss and blood transfusion with the use of intravenous Tranexamic acid in open reduction and internal fixation of acetabular fractures.

      Keywords

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