Advertisement

Systematic reviews and meta-analyses: What are the common pitfalls?

Published:January 27, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.injury.2022.01.042
      The idea of systematically searching, selecting and analyzing the relevant literature on a specific topic in order to provide the best available evidence on a treatment intervention, diagnostic test, prognostic factor or other healthcare topic originated in the early 1980’s, when the term “critical appraisal” was used by Dr. David Sackett to assess the extracted evidence from systematically examined medical literature [
      • Sackett DL
      • Rosenberg WM
      • Gray JA
      • Haynes RB
      • Richardson WS.
      Evidence-based medicine: what it is and what it isn't.
      ]. Later on, by 1990 the term “Evidence-based Medicine” was coined by Professor Gordon Guyatt to signal a fundamental transformation of the approach to healthcare education and practice, highlighting the value of using the best available evidence for the optimal care of patients [
      • Guyatt GH.
      Evidence-based medicine.
      ]. Interestingly, the term meta-analysis, predated the aforementioned terms, as it was initially introduced by Gene Glass back in 1976 [
      • Glass GV.
      Primary, secondary, and meta-analysis research.
      ].
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Injury
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Sackett DL
        • Rosenberg WM
        • Gray JA
        • Haynes RB
        • Richardson WS.
        Evidence-based medicine: what it is and what it isn't.
        BMJ. 1996; 312: 71-72
        • Guyatt GH.
        Evidence-based medicine.
        ACP J Club. 1991; 114: A16
        • Glass GV.
        Primary, secondary, and meta-analysis research.
        Educ Res. 1976; 5: 3-8
        • Stewart GB
        • Schmid CH.
        Lessons from meta-analysis in ecology and evolution: the need for trans-disciplinary evidence synthesis methodologies.
        Res Synth Methods. 2015; 6: 109-110
        • Nakagawa S
        • Noble DWA
        • Senior AM
        • Malgorzata Lagisz M.
        Meta-evaluation of meta-analysis: ten appraisal questions for biologists.
        BMC Biology. 2017; 15: 18https://doi.org/10.1186/s12915-017-0357-7
        • Manta A
        • Opingari E
        • Simunovic N
        • Duong A
        • Sprague S
        • Peterson D
        • Bhandari M.
        A systematic review of meta-analyses in orthopaedic surgery between 2000 and 2016.
        Bone Joint J. 2018; 100-B: 1270-1274
        • Blettner M
        • Sauerbrei W
        • Schlehofer B
        • Scheuchenpflug T
        • Friedenreich C.
        Traditional reviews, meta-analyses and pooled analyses in epidemiology.
        Int J Epidemiol. 1999; 28: 1-9https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/28.1.1
        • Lefaivre KA
        • Slobogean GP.
        Understanding systematic reviews and meta-analyses in orthopaedics.
        J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2013; 21: 245-255https://doi.org/10.5435/JAAOS-21-04-245
        • Dijkman BG
        • Abouali JAK
        • Kooistra BW
        • Conter HJ
        • Poolman RW
        • Kulkarni AV
        • Tornetta 3rd, P
        • Bhandari M
        Twenty years of meta-analyses in orthopaedic surgery: has quality kept up with quantity?.
        J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2010; 92: 48-57https://doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.I.00251
      1. Higgins JPT Thomas J Chandler J Cumpston M Li T Page MJ Welch VA Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. 2nd Edition. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester (UK)2019
        • Guyatt GH
        • Oxman AD
        • Vist GE
        • Kunz R
        • Falck-Ytter Y
        • Alonso-Coello P
        • Schünemann HJ
        GRADE: an emerging consensus on rating quality of evidence and strength of recommendations.
        BMJ. 2008; 336: 924-926
        • Chaimani A
        • Caldwell DM
        • Li T
        • Higgins JPT
        • Salanti G
        Chapter 11: undertaking network meta-analyses.
        in: Higgins JPT Thomas J Chandler J Cumpston M Li T Page MJ Welch VA Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. 2nd Edition. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester (UK)2019: 285-320
        • Salanti G.
        Indirect and mixed-treatment comparison, network, or multiple-treatments meta-analysis: many names, many benefits, many concerns for the next generation evidence synthesis tool.
        Research Synthesis Methods. 2012; 3: 80-97
        • Li T
        • Puhan MO
        • Vedulla SS
        • Singh S
        Dickersin K and for The Ad Hoc Network Meta-Analysis Methods Meeting Working Group. Network meta-analysis-highly attractive but more methodological research is needed.
        BMC Medicine. 2011; 9: 79