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The frail fail: Increased mortality and post-operative complications in orthopaedic trauma patients

      Abstract

      Objective

      The burgeoning elderly population calls for a robust tool to identify patients with increased risk of mortality and morbidity. This paper investigates the utility of the MFI as a predictor of morbidity and mortality in orthopaedic trauma patients.

      Design

      Retrospective review of the NSQIP database to identify patients age 60 and above who underwent surgery for pelvis and lower extremity fractures between 2005 and 2014.

      Main outcomes and measures

      For each patient, an MFI score was calculated using NSQIP variables. The relationship between the MFI score and 30-day mortality and morbidity was determined using chi-square analysis. MFI was compared to age, American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status classification, and wound classifications in multiple logistic regression.

      Results

      Study sample consisted of 36,424 patients with 27.8% male with an average age of 79.5 years (SD 9.3). MFI ranged from 0 to 0.82 with mean MFI of 0.12 (SD 0.09). Mortality increased from 2.7% to 13.2% and readmission increased from 5.5% to 18.8% with increasing MFI score. The rate of any complication increased from 30.1% to 38.6%. Length of hospital stay increased from 5.3 days (±5.5 days) to 9.1 days (±7.2 days) between MFI score 0 and 0.45+. There was a stronger association between 30-day mortality and MFI (aOR for MFI 0.45+: 2.6, 95% CI: 1.7–3.9) compared to age (aOR for age: 1.1, 95% CI: 1.1-1.1) and ASA (aOR 2.5, 95% CI: 2.3–2.7).

      Conclusions and relevance

      MFI was a significant predictor of morbidity and mortality in orthopaedic trauma patients. The use of MFI can provide an individualized risk assessment tool that can be used by an interdisciplinary team for perioperative counseling and to improve outcomes.

      Keywords

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