Paper| Volume 26, ISSUE 1, P47-50, January 1995

Download started.


Fractures of the facial skeleton in children

  • P.J. Anderson
    Requests for reprints should be addressed to: P. J. Anderson, Department of Plastic Surgery, Queen Mary's University Hospital, Roehampton, Surrey, SW15 5PN UK.
    Royal Hospital for Sick Children, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK
    Search for articles by this author
      This paper is only available as a PDF. To read, Please Download here.


      Fractures of the facial skeleton in children are uncommon. This study presents the results of 139 children who sustained a total of 161 such fractures and were admitted to the Royal Hospital for Sick Children, Edinburgh, between January 1983 and December 1992.
      The male to female ratio was 3:1 and the highest incidence was at age 10 years. Analysis of fracture patterns showed that despite differences in anatomy, the fracture patterns were similar to those occurring in adults, but the relative proportion of each fracture type was different in children. Nasal fractures occurred most frequently (54 per cent), mandibular fractures constituted 30 per cent, and middle third fractures only 16 per cent.
      Falls, sporting injuries and road traffic accidents (RTA) were the major causes of these injuries. Injuries sustained in RTA were most likely to have involved cyclists or pedestrians in contrast to earlier series which have identified these injuries mainly among car passengers.
      No deaths were recorded and most patients made a complete recovery, although a few required secondary surgery for complications. This taken in conjunction with the findings of both high numbers of associated injuries, and increased severity commonly occurring in both mandibular and middle third injuries leads to the suggestion that these should be treated in centres where multidisciplinary management can easily be coordinated.
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


      Subscribe to Injury
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • James D
        Maxillofacial injuries in children.
        in: 3rd edn. Maxillofacial Injuries. Vol. 2. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh1985: 538
        • Ellis E
        • Moos KF
        • El-Attar A
        Ten years of mandibular fractures: an analysis of 2137 cases.
        Oral Surg. 1985; 59: 120
        • MacLennan WD
        Fractures of the mandible in children under the age of six years.
        B J Plast Surg. 1956; 9: 125
        • Morgan BDG
        • Madan DK
        • Bergerot JPC
        Fractures of the middle third of the face—a review of 300 cases.
        B J Plast Surg. 1972; 25: 147
        • Rowe NL
        Fractures of the facial skeleton in children.
        J Oral Surg. 1968; 26: 505
        • Morgan WC
        Pediatric mandibular fractures.
        Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1975; 40: 320
        • Hall RK
        Injuries of the face and jaws in children.
        Int J Oral Surg. 1972; 1: 65
        • Kaban LB
        • Mulliken JB
        • Murray JE
        Facial fractures in children.
        Plas Reconstructr Surg. 1977; 59: 15
        • Bochlogyros P
        A retrospective study of 1521 mandibular fractures.
        J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1985; 27: 597
        • Keniry AJ
        A survey of jaw fractures of children.
        Br J Oral Surg. 1971; 8: 231
        • Stylogianni L
        • Arsenopoulous A
        • Patrikou A
        Fractures of the facial skeleton in children.
        Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1991; 29: 9
        • Posnick JC
        • Wells M
        • Pran GE
        Pediatric facial fractures: evolving patterns of treatment.
        J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1993; 51: 836
        • Tanarka N
        • Uchide N
        • Suzuki K
        • et al.
        Maxillofacial fractures in children.
        J Craniomaxfac Surg. 1993; 21: 289
        • McGraw L
        • Cole RR
        Pediatric maxillofacial trauma.
        Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1990; 116: 41
        • McCoy FJ
        • Chandler RA
        • Crow ML
        Facial fractures in children.
        Plast Reconstructr Surg. 1966; 37: 209
        • Hill CM
        • Crosher RF
        • Mason DA
        Dental and facial injuries following sports accidents: a study of 130 patients.
        Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1985; 23: 368